An operating model component that controls the observation model

## Slots

`Name`

The name of the observation model object. Single value. Character string.

`Name`

The name of the Observation error object. Single value. Character string.

`Cobs`

Observation error around the total catch. Observation error in the total catch is expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). Cobs requires upper and lower bounds of a uniform distribution, and for each simulation a CV is sampled from this distribution. Each CV is used to specify a log-normal error distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. The yearly observation error values for the catch data are then drawn from this distribution. For each time step the simulation model records the true catch, but the observed catch is generated by applying this yearly error term (plus any bias, if specified) to the true catch.

`Cbiascv`

Log-normally distributed coefficient of variation controlling the sampling bias in observed catch for each simulation. Bias occurs when catches are systematically skewed away from the true catch level (for example, due to underreporting of catch or undetected illegal catches). Cbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years.

`CAA_nsamp`

Number of catch-at-age observations collected per time step. For each time step a single value is drawn from a uniform distribution specified by the upper and lower bounds provided. Positive integers.

`CAA_ESS`

Effective sample size of catch-at-age observations collected per time step. For each time step a single value is drawn from a uniform distribution specified by the upper and lower bounds provided. CAA_ESS should not exceed CAA_nsamp. If greater than 1, then this is the multinomial distribution sample size. If less than 1, this is the coefficient of variation for the logistic normal distribution (see help doucmentation for simCAA for details).

`CAL_nsamp`

Number of catch-at-length observations collected per time step. For each time step a single value is drawn from a uniform distribution specified by the upper and lower bounds provided. Positive integers.

`CAL_ESS`

Effective sample size. For each time step a single value is drawn from a uniform distribution specified by the upper and lower bounds provided. CAL_ESS should not exceed CAL_nsamp. Positive integers.

`Iobs`

Observation error in the relative abundance index expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). Iobs requires upper and lower bounds of a uniform distribution, and for each simulation a CV is sampled from this distribution. Each CV is used to specify a log-normal error distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. The yearly observation error values for the index of abundance data are then drawn from this distribution. For each time step the simulation model records the true change in abundance, but the observed index is generated by applying this yearly error term (plus any bias, if specified) to the true relative change in abundance. Positive real numbers.

`Btobs`

Observation error in the absolute abundance expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). Btobs requires upper and lower bounds of a uniform distribution, and for each simulation a CV is sampled from this distribution. Each CV is used to specify a log-normal error distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. The yearly observation error values for the absolute abundance data are then drawn from this distribution. For each time step the simulation model records the true abundance, but the observed abundance is generated by applying this yearly error term (plus any bias, if specified) to the true abundance. Positive real numbers.

`Btbiascv`

Log-normally distributed coefficient (CV) controlling error in observations of the current stock biomass. Bias occurs when the observed index of abundance is is systematically higher or lower than the true relative abundance. Btbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`beta`

A parameter controlling hyperstability/hyperdepletion in the measurement of abundance. For each simulation a single value is drawn from a uniform distribution specified by the upper and lower bounds provided. Values below 1 lead to hyperstability (the observed index decreases more slowly than the true abundance) and values above 1 lead to hyperdepletion (the observed index decreases more rapidly than true abundance). Positive real numbers.

`LenMbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in observed length at 50 percent maturity. LenMbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`Mbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in observed natural mortality rate. Mbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`Kbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in observed growth parameter K. Kbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`t0biascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in observed t0. t0biascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`Linfbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in observed maximum length. Linfbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`LFCbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in observed length at first capture. LFCbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`LFSbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in length-at-full selection. LFSbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`FMSY_Mbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in estimates of the ratio of the fishing mortality rate that gives the maximum sustainable yield relative to the assumed instantaneous natural mortality rate. FMSY/M. FMSY_Mbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`BMSY_B0biascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in estimates of the BMSY relative to unfished biomass (BMSY/B0). BMSY_B0biascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`Irefbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in the observed relative index of abundance (Iref). Irefbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`Brefbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in the observed reference biomass (Bref). Brefbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`Crefbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in the observed reference catch (Cref). Crefbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`Dbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling bias in the observed depletion level. Dbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`Dobs`

Log-normal coefficient of variation controlling error in observations of stock depletion among years. Observation error in the depletion expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). Dobs requires the upper and lower bounds of a uniform distribution, and for each simulation a CV is sampled from this distribution. Each CV is used to specify a log-normal error distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. The yearly observation error values for the depletion data are then drawn from this distribution. For each time step the simulation model records the true depletion, but the observed depletion is generated by applying this yearly error term (plus any bias, if specified) to the true depletion.

`hbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling persistent bias in steepness. hbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`Recbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling persistent bias in recent recruitment strength. Recbiascv requires the upper and lower bounds of a uniform distribution, and for each simulation a CV is sampled from this distribution. Each CV is used to specify a log-normal error distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. The yearly bias values for the depletion data are then drawn from this distribution. Positive real numbers.

`sigmaRbiascv`

Log-normal coefficient of variation for sampling persistent bias in recruitment variability. sigmaRbiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years. Positive real numbers.

`Eobs`

Observation error around the total effort. Observation error in the total effort is expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). Eobs requires upper and lower bounds of a uniform distribution, and for each simulation a CV is sampled from this distribution. Each CV is used to specify a log-normal error distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. The yearly observation error values for the effort data are then drawn from this distribution. For each time step the simulation model records the true effort, but the observed effort is generated by applying this yearly error term (plus any bias, if specified) to the true effort.

`Ebiascv`

Log-normally distributed coefficient of variation controlling the sampling bias in observed effort for each simulation. Bias occurs when effort is systematically skewed away from the true effort level. Ebiascv is a single value specifying the standard deviation of a log-normal distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation equal to the sampled CV. For each simulation a bias value is drawn from this distribution, and that bias is applied across all years.

## Note

Its questionable whether the hyperstability/hyperdepletion should be categorised as an observation model characteristic as it is most often driven by fleet dynamics (and therefore should be in the fleet object). Oh well its here and you might want to make it hyperstable beta < 1 or hyperdeplete beta > 1, only.

## Examples

```
showClass('Obs')
#> Class "Obs" [package "MSEtool"]
#>
#> Slots:
#>
#> Name: Name Cobs Cbiascv CAA_nsamp CAA_ESS
#> Class: character numeric numeric numeric numeric
#>
#> Name: CAL_nsamp CAL_ESS Iobs Btobs Btbiascv
#> Class: numeric numeric numeric numeric numeric
#>
#> Name: beta LenMbiascv Mbiascv Kbiascv t0biascv
#> Class: numeric numeric numeric numeric numeric
#>
#> Name: Linfbiascv LFCbiascv LFSbiascv FMSY_Mbiascv BMSY_B0biascv
#> Class: numeric numeric numeric numeric numeric
#>
#> Name: Irefbiascv Brefbiascv Crefbiascv Dbiascv Dobs
#> Class: numeric numeric numeric numeric numeric
#>
#> Name: hbiascv Recbiascv sigmaRbiascv Eobs Ebiascv
#> Class: numeric numeric numeric numeric numeric
#>
#> Known Subclasses: "OM"
```